Relative dating evaluate geologic time
Lord Kelvin, applied his knowledge of physics to develop the assumption that the Earth started as a hot molten sphere.He estimated the Earth is 98 million years old, but because of uncertainties in his calculations stated the age as a range of between 20 and 400 million years This animation illustrates how Kelvin calculated this range and why his numbers were so far off, which has to do with unequal heat transfer within the Earth.
The specific events within Earth history are discussed in Chapter 8.
Radiocarbon dating, also called carbon dating, uses the unstable An atom that has different number of neutrons but the same number of protons.
When two continents crash, with no subduction (and thus little to no volcanism), since each continent is to buoyant.
CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons' src=" alt="It shows two paths" width="254" height="300" srcset=" sizes="(max-width: 254px) 85vw, 254px"/ is when a proton in the nucleus captures an electron from one of the electron shells and becomes a neutron.
This produces one of two different effects: 1) an electron jumps in to fill the missing spot of the departed electron and emits an X-ray, or 2) in what is called the Auger process, another electron is released and changes the atom into an An atom that has different number of neutrons but the same number of protons.