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To understand this process we must first understand a little bit about the atoms themselves and how they get their names.
Most carbon atoms have six positively charged protons and six uncharged neutrons.
When Carbon-14 emits a beta particle, the Carbon-14 atom becomes a Nitrogen-14 Atom.
Looking at the Mass Number and Atomic Number of the atoms we see that the atom has lost a neutron and gained a proton.
What should catch your attention is the nature of the various carbon isotopes.So in this reaction, a neutron is captured by the nitrogen atom and a proton is released.Thus in the nitrogen atom, a proton is effectively converted into a neutron, which allows a Carbon to be produced.Other atoms are also named based on the number of protons they carry.Notice in the diagram that eight different isotopes of Carbon are illustrated.