Dating dispersal and radiation in the gymnosperm gnetum
After sequence alignment and removal of ambiguous regions, we obtained two datasets, one of 56 taxa and 10,472 aligned nucleotides from plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear DNA, the other of 144 taxa and 7,171 nucleotides from plastid DNA only.
Maximum likelihood, parsimony, and Bayesian optimization inferred similar topologies from both datasets.
S1) that were similar to or younger than those obtained with BEAST; ages for long-branched nodes (most nodes within Callitroideae; Fig.
Blue lines represent Cupressoideae restricted to the area of Laurasian continents.Most extant genus-level radiations in gymnosperms are of Oligocene age or younger, reflecting widespread extinction during climate cooling at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary [∼23 million years ago (Ma)].Recent biogeographic studies have revealed many instances of long-distance dispersal in gymnosperms as well as in angiosperms.Confidence intervals around estimates from the two Bayesian approaches overlapped (Table S3).With all three dating approaches, the more densely sampled 144-taxon dataset produced slightly older age estimates (compare Fig.