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Agriotherium was characterized by its relatively long legs (which gave it a vaguely dog-like appearance) and blunt snout studded with massive, bone-crushing teeth—a hint that this prehistoric bear may have scavenged the carcasses of other megafauna mammals rather than hunting live prey.

Like modern bears, Agriotherium supplemented its diet with fish, fruit, vegetables, and pretty much any other kind of digestible food it happened across.

During the Miocene epoch, South America was cut off from the rest of the world's continents, resulting in the evolution of a bizarre array of mammalian megafauna.

Astrapotherium was a typical example: this hooved ungulate (a distant relative of horses) looked like a cross between an elephant, a tapir, and a rhinoceros, with a short, prehensile trunk and powerful tusks.

Like other opportunistic predators of the Pleistocene epoch, Cave Hyenas preyed on early humans and hominids, and they weren't shy about stealing the hard-earned kill of packs of Neanderthals and other large predators.

(In fact, the authors of the paper compared fossilized Myotragus bones to those of contemporary reptiles, and found similar growth patterns.) As you might expect, not everyone subscribes to the theory that Myotragus had a reptile-like metabolism (which would make it the first mammal in history to have ever evolved this bizarre trait).

More likely, this was simply a slow, stubby, ponderous, small-brained Pleistocene herbivore that had the luxury of not having to defend itself against natural predators.

Right off the bat, there are two odd things about Aepycamelus: first, this megafauna camel looked more like a giraffe, with its long legs and slender neck, and second, it lived in Miocene North America (not a place one normally associates with camels).

Befitting its giraffe-like appearance, Aepycamelus spent most of its time nibbling the leaves off high trees, and since it lived well before the earliest humans no one ever attempted to take it for a ride.

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